Aligning Exercise With Your Menstrual Cycle for Peak Performance

For individuals who menstruate, it is crucial to understand the interplay between the menstrual cycle, movement, and exercise. Helping menstruators optimise and get the most from their fitness routines is crucial, as the menstrual cycle can significantly influence energy levels, performance, and recovery.

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the menstrual cycle, exploring its various phases and how they may impact exercise. We will also provide evidence-based insights that you can use as a menstruator to tailor your workouts for maximum efficiency.

Key Takeaways

  • Understanding the menstrual cycle’s impact on exercise requires recognising the considerable variability among menstruators. What works for one person may not work for another, emphasising the importance of personalised approaches to training. 
  • While knowledge of hormonal shifts provides valuable insights, tracking your menstrual cycle offers a more comprehensive understanding. It allows you to recognise patterns, variations, and potential irregularities, contributing to a more informed and holistic perspective on your reproductive health.
  • Armed with the knowledge of your menstrual cycle, you can tailor various aspects of your life, including exercise, nutrition, and self-care, to the specific phases of your cycle. This personalised strategy enhances overall well-being by aligning daily activities with your body’s natural rhythm.
  • A holistic approach that considers both physical and mental well-being is essential for optimising exercise performance throughout the menstrual cycle. Integrating mindfulness and stress-reducing practices enhances the overall effectiveness of an exercise routine.

Decoding the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is a natural, recurring process that prepares female born bodies for the possibility of pregnancy.

The cycle is orchestrated by the interplay of hormones, primarily oestrogen and progesterone. Starting with menstruation, the cycle comprises distinct phases, each with its unique hormonal profile and physiological changes.

Menstruation, commonly known as a period, marks the first day of the menstrual cycle. During this phase, the uterus sheds its lining in the absence of a fertilised egg. As the cycle progresses, hormonal fluctuations influence energy levels, mood, and various aspects of physical well-being.

It should be noted that menstrual cycles are as unique as the individuals who experience them. A healthy cycle can range between 25-35 days in length, with menstruation lasting 3-5 days.

This variation is ‘typical,’ but it’s also complex and highly personal.

For some, their menstrual cycle is like clockwork, nearly the same length each cycle. Yet, for others, it’s a different experience — their periods might be unpredictable and irregular.

Interestingly, there are some people who don’t menstruate at all, despite having gone through puberty, aren’t pregnant, and don’t use birth control.

The key takeaway here is simple: what constitutes a “typical” menstrual cycle varies greatly from person to person. What’s normal for one might not be for another. Understanding this diversity is essential in recognising the broad spectrum of menstrual health.

Hormonal Fluctuations During Menstrual Cycle and Its Effect on Exercise Performance 

Hormones play a pivotal role in modulating various physiological processes, and their fluctuations across the menstrual cycle can significantly impact exercise performance. Oestrogen and progesterone, the key players in the menstrual cycle, influence energy metabolism, muscle function, and recovery.

Oestrogen, which rises during the follicular phase, has been linked to improved exercise performance. It enhances muscle protein synthesis and may contribute to increased strength gains.

On the other hand, progesterone, predominant in the luteal phase, can lead to changes such as increased water retention and alterations in mood.

The Need to Track Your Menstrual Cycle 

Understanding hormonal shifts is just a piece of the puzzle when it comes to staying in tune with your menstrual cycle. Equally crucial is the practice of actively tracking your menstrual cycle. While there are many digital apps available for this purpose, experts still recommend using a written tracker.

Using pen and paper to log your cycle can offer a clearer view of your menstrual health. It’s a simple yet effective way to notice patterns or changes over time — whether you’re using a specific printable menstrual cycle tracker, like this one by our Founder, Jema Lee, a traditional diary, or a calendar.

Documenting when your menstruation begins and each day of your cycle helps in understanding your body and it’s cyclical nature better.

This provides valuable insights into your overall health and fertility, helping you identify irregularities or potential health issues. Changes in the length of your cycle, the duration of menstruation, or the presence of cycle signs or irregular symptoms may indicate hormonal imbalances or other underlying concerns that warrant attention.

Additionally, understanding the patterns of your menstrual cycle empowers you to tailor your workout routines to capitalise on the strengths of each phase and mitigate potential challenges.

Aligning Exercises With Each Menstrual Cycle Phase

Understanding your menstrual cycle goes beyond merely acknowledging its existence and tracking it. It also involves syncing your movement and workouts with each distinct phase of this natural rhythm.

In this section, we will delve into the art of syncing movement and exercise, exploring how to create a training program aligned with the phases of your menstrual cycle.

We will also emphasise the importance of attuning to your body’s signals and ensuring exercise effectiveness by embracing the innate changes that occur throughout the menstrual cycle.

PhaseDurationHormonal ChangesExercise Recommendations
MenstrualRoughly 3-5 days in lengthLow oestrogen and progesterone levelsPrioritise rest and recovery activities. Consider light movement, such as stretching, walking, and yin yoga.
FollicularApproximately 7-10 days in length but can vary wildly depending on one’s cycle lengthGradual rise in oestrogenEngage in strength training and aerobic exercises, such as cardio, dancing, running.
Ovulatory3-4 days in lengthPeak oestrogen levelsOptimal for high-intensity workouts and skill-based activities like HITT, hot yoga, speed training.
Luteal11 – 14 days in lengthRise in progesteroneFocus on exercises promoting strength, recovery, such as swimming, pilates, outdoor activities or yoga.

Menstrual Phase: Exercises for Rest and Recovery

The menstrual phase marks the beginning of the menstrual cycle, lasting approximately 3-5  days in length. During this time, your uterus sheds its lining, resulting in menstruation. Your hormone levels, particularly oestrogen and progesterone, are at their lowest.

According to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), many menstruators may experience increased fatigue and discomfort during this phase. This makes it vital to prioritise rest and recovery activities. Light exercise movements such as yoga or gentle walks can be beneficial for maintaining mobility without over-exertion.

Follicular Phase: Exercises for Building Strength and Endurance 

The follicular phase follows menstruation and in this phase, hormone levels, especially oestrogen, gradually rise, resulting in improved mood and increased energy and endurance. This phase is an opportune time for you to engage in strength training and aerobic exercises.

A study published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information highlighted the vital role that oestrogen plays in increasing anabolic response to exercise. 

By incorporating activities like weightlifting, running, or cycling in your workouts during the follicular phase of your menstrual cycle, you can leverage the heightened oestrogen levels to increase your muscle mass and optimise your overall physical performance.

Ovulatory Phase: Capitalising on Peak Performance

The ovulatory phase occurs around the middle of the menstrual cycle, lasting for about 3-4 days at the peak of ovulation. At this point, the mature egg is released by the ovary, enabling it to descend to the fallopian tube.

Oestrogen levels reach their peak at this phase, which may enhance muscle function, coordination, and response time. Hence, this is also a fantastic time to keep up your strength training and high-intensity workouts.

Consider incorporating activities that require precision and agility, such as interval training or sports-specific drills, during this phase.

Luteal Phase: Exercises for Enhanced Recovery

The luteal phase spans from the end of the ovulatory phase until the onset of menstruation, lasting approximately 11-14 days in length. Progesterone levels rise during this phase, potentially leading to increased water retention, mood changes, and higher resting heart rate and breathing rate.

The hormonal fluctuations during the luteal phase can put extra stress on your body, making it a must to focus on exercises that prioritise recovery. Activities like swimming, brisk walking, or low-intensity yoga can be beneficial for maintaining physical activity without exacerbating fatigue.

Additionally, studies have shown that the amount of energy required by menstruators increases during the luteal phase as the body prepares for menstruation. Hence, apart from engaging in moderate-activity exercises, it is vital to consume a diet low in protein but rich in complex carbohydrates and omega-3 fatty acids. This is to effectively replenish your energy level whilst eliminating PMS during this phase.

Practical Tips for Menstrual Cycle Exercise

Understanding the menstrual cycle’s impact on exercise is one aspect; incorporating this knowledge into a fitness routine is another.

To ensure that you can tailor your workout for optimal results during your menstrual cycle, here are some practical tips to follow:

  1. Listen to Your Body: Pay attention to your energy levels, mood, and physical sensations throughout the menstrual cycle. Adjust the intensity and duration of your workouts based on how your body responds to different phases.
  2. Emphasise Recovery Strategies: Prioritise recovery activities, such as adequate sleep, hydration, and nutrition, to support your body’s changing needs. Implementing effective recovery strategies can enhance your overall well-being and exercise performance.
  3. Experiment with Workout Timing: Try scheduling more intense workouts during the follicular and ovulatory phases when energy levels are typically higher. Reserve the menstrual and luteal phases for lighter activities and recovery-focused exercises.
  4. Stay Hydrated and Nourished: Proper hydration and nutrition are essential components of any fitness routine. Menstruators should focus on maintaining a well-balanced diet and staying adequately hydrated throughout the entire menstrual cycle.

Going Beyond Physical Exercise During Menstrual Cycle

Take note that understanding the impact of the menstrual cycle on movement and exercise should not be limited to physical aspects. Instead, it’s important to consider how movement  affects your mental well-being.

Integrating mindfulness exercises and strategies into your fitness routine can offer valuable benefits during different phases of your menstrual cycle.

Research from the American Psychological Association suggests that mindfulness practices, such as meditation and deep-breathing exercises, can help manage stress, improve mood, and enhance overall mental resilience. 

Given the hormonal fluctuations experienced during the menstrual cycle, cultivating a strong mind-body connection can be pivotal in establishing a holistic approach to exercise and making your period experience more positive. It can ease your menstrual symptoms, enhance your exercise performance, and ultimately, help you be more in tune with your body’s needs.  


Optimising exercise throughout the menstrual cycle is a personalised journey that requires attentiveness to a menstruator’s body and its changing needs.

By understanding your menstrual cycle and aligning your workouts with each of its phases, you can enhance your fitness performance, reduce your risk of injury, and promote your overall well-being.

With this comprehensive guide, you should be empowered to make informed decisions about your fitness routines, promoting a harmonious relationship between your menstrual cycle and exercise.

If you would like to grow your knowledge about the menstrual cycle and its relationship with exercise and gain the skills to become a Menstrual Cycle Coach to empower other menstruators, join our community today!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

The menstrual cycle is the cyclical series of changes a woman's body goes through in preparation for a possible pregnancy approximately 12-13 times per year. It involves hormonal fluctuations and the shedding of the uterine lining if pregnancy does not occur.

The menstrual cycle consists of four phases — menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. Each phase is regulated by different hormone levels and serves specific functions in preparing the body for potential pregnancy.

Tracking your menstrual cycle provides personalised insights into your unique cycle length, ovulation timing, and hormonal fluctuations. This information guides health and wellness practices, enabling early detection of irregularities and empowering timely medical intervention for hormonal imbalances or potential health issues.

Understanding the different phases of the menstrual cycle can help you in adjusting the intensity, duration, and type of exercise to align with your energy levels, strength, mood, and physical comfort throughout the month. This knowledge empowers you to optimise your workouts based on your unique cycle patterns.

The menstrual cycle can serve as a guide for planning movement and exercise routines to align with the fluctuating energy levels and physical changes that occur throughout the month. Adjusting workouts based on the different phases can help in optimising your performance and well-being during the entire cycle.

The menstrual cycle may affect exercise performance and recovery due to hormonal fluctuations, energy levels, and physical discomfort during certain phases. Understanding these variations can help in optimising workout routines according to the stage of the cycle.

Common symptoms that may affect exercise during the menstrual cycle include low energy, bloating, cramps, and mood changes.

Yes, hormonal fluctuations, particularly those of oestrogen and progesterone, significantly impact energy metabolism, muscle function, and recovery. Understanding these fluctuations allows for tailored exercise routines that leverage the strengths of each menstrual cycle phase.

Exercise supports relief from premenstrual symptoms, regulates hormone levels, improves mood, and alleviates discomfort during menstruation. Additionally, adapting workouts to sync with energy levels and strength fluctuations can optimise exercise efficiency throughout the cycle.

Yes, it can be beneficial to make adjustments to your exercise routine throughout your cycle to accommodate changes in energy levels and performance due to hormonal fluctuations and other effects of the menstrual cycle.

Moderate exercise, such as yoga or pilates, may be beneficial during the premenstrual and menstrual phases to alleviate discomfort and regulate hormone levels. High-intensity training may be more suitable during the follicular and ovulatory phases when energy levels are typically higher.

The follicular phase, characterised by a gradual rise in oestrogen, is considered an optimal time for strength training. Higher oestrogen levels during this phase may contribute to increased muscle protein synthesis and improved strength gains, making it beneficial for engaging in resistance training.

Cultivating a strong mind-body connection is crucial for establishing a holistic approach to exercise during the menstrual cycle. Mindfulness practices, such as meditation and deep-breathing exercises, can help manage stress, improve mood, and enhance overall mental resilience, contributing to a positive period experience.

To ensure consistent exercise participation throughout the menstrual month, make sure you are aware of your cycle, adapt your workout plans based on the phase, and prioritise self-care during more challenging stages. This approach can support a sustainable and balanced exercise routine during the entire menstrual cycle and can boost your training efforts.

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