Decoding the Menstrual Cycle: A Comprehensive Guide for Menstruators

The menstrual cycle is a complex biological process affecting menstruators worldwide. The World Bank notes that on a typical day, over 300 million women are having their period, experiencing this every cycle for between three to five days for a healthy menstruation.

Despite being a completely natural occurrence, menstruation is frequently shrouded with  stigma. This stigma is perpetuated through a range of sociocultural channels, as noted in an article on Women’s Reproductive Health, including daily conversations, media portrayals, movies, and societal norms.

From an early age, many people receive messages implying that menstruation is “dirty” or “impure,” and these messages instill a sense of shame. Teaching young menstruators to  view this bodily function as a taboo topic, one to be concealed and not discussed openly.

Unfortunately, this perspective can have lasting adverse effects on the perception of both menstrual and fertility health, and the self-esteem of menstruating individuals.

According to UNICEF, misinformation about menstruation fosters harmful misunderstandings and discrimination. This ignorance can disrupt routine life experiences and activities of young menstruators during a critical time of their development. The absence of proper menstrual education also limits their ability to establish healthy habits regarding menstruation.

These insights on menstruation highlight the importance of developing a deep understanding of the menstrual cycle and its implications beyond fertility. Doing so contributes to providing better health and quality of life for all those who menstruate. 

In that respect, we have prepared a comprehensive guide to help you decode the menstrual cycle, breaking down its key phases and shedding light on hormonal fluctuations, potential irregularities (aka cycle signs), and more. Let’s uncover uneducated aspects of the menstrual cycle so you can better understand your menstrual health.

Key Takeaways

  • The menstrual cycle is a natural biological process divided into distinct phases, each characterised by specific hormonal changes. Recognising these phases can empower menstruators by providing insights into fertility, identifying potential irregularities, and fostering a proactive approach to menstrual health.

  • Despite being a natural occurrence, menstruation is often enveloped in stigma, leading to misinformation and shame. Educating oneself and others, breaking the silence around menstrual discussions, and challenging societal norms are crucial steps towards destigmatising menstruation and promoting a healthier, more inclusive view of menstrual health.

  • Understanding common menstrual irregularities, cycle signs, their symptoms, and potential causes is vital. Acknowledging when these irregularities might indicate underlying health issues and seeking professional medical advice is essential for maintaining optimal menstrual health and well-being.

  • Menstrual health and hygiene are fundamental to a menstruator’s quality of life. Regularly changing sanitary products, practising good hygiene, wearing breathable fabrics, tracking one’s cycle, and adhering to a balanced diet can alleviate challenges  and prevent infections, ensuring a more comfortable and sanitary menstrual experience. One that is possible and we all deserve.

The Menstrual Cycle: An Overview

The menstrual cycle is a cyclical occurrence among menstruators. It involves hormonal changes and physical transformations in the body, culminating in either menstruation or pregnancy.

The average menstrual cycle changes from person to person and variations are entirely normal, with a healthy menstrual cycle ranging from 25-35 days in length.

The menstrual cycle is divided into four phases with distinct characteristics and hormonal fluctuations. Let’s delve into these phases to understand this remarkable process better.

  1. Menstrual Phase: The menstrual phase, also known as menstruation, marks the start of a new cycle and typically lasts from day 1 to day 5, although it can vary from person to person. During this phase, the uterine lining, which has thickened in preparation for a potential pregnancy, is shed and expelled through the vagina in the form of menstrual bleeding.

  1. Follicular Phase: Alongside menstruation is the beginning of the follicular phase, typically lasting from cycle day 1 through to ovulation. During this phase, the brain’s pituitary gland releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates the ovaries to produce several tiny sacs called follicles. Each follicle contains an immature egg. Only one dominant follicle will continue to develop while the others regress. This dominant follicle secretes oestrogen, the primary female sex hormone. Oestrogen plays a crucial role in preparing the body for potential pregnancy by thickening the uterine lining, increasing cervical mucus production, and enhancing the receptivity of the uterine lining for a potential embryo.

  2. Ovulation: Marks the peak of the cycle and for most menstruators occurs between days 11-17 of a 28-30 day cycle. At ovulation, a surge in luteinising hormone (LH) triggers the release of the mature egg from the dominant follicle, marking the onset of ovulation. This egg then travels down the fallopian tube, where it can meet a sperm for fertilisation. Ovulation is a crucial phase for a healthy cycle as well as those trying to conceive, representing the most fertile period in the menstrual cycle. Tracking ovulation can be helpful for menstruators who want to either optimise their chances of getting pregnant or avoid pregnancy.

  3. Luteal Phase: Following ovulation, the body enters the luteal phase, the final of the four phases. This phase lasts from approximately 11-14 days in length. During this phase, the ruptured follicle transforms into a structure called the corpus luteum, which produces both oestrogen and progesterone. Progesterone takes centre stage during the luteal phase, which is vital in preparing the uterine lining for potential embryo implantation. If fertilisation doesn’t occur, progesterone levels drop, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and the start of menstruation.

Common Period Irregularities, Their Symptoms, and Possible Causes

While the menstrual cycle typically follows a regular pattern, it’s not uncommon for some menstruators to experience occasional irregularities. Understanding these irregularities and their symptoms and possible causes can help properly alleviate those symptoms and identify when it’s time to seek professional guidance. Here are some typical cycle signs and cycle  irregularities:




Possible Causes




Absence of menstrual periods.


  • Lack of menstrual bleeding
  • Changes in hormonal balance
  • Potential underlying medical conditions.


  • Pregnancy
  • Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and thyroid disorders
  • High levels of stress or significant weight loss
  • Certain medications, such as birth control pills or antipsychotics.




Characterised by severe menstrual cramps and pain during menstruation.


  • Intense pelvic pain
  • Lower back pain
  • Nausea and vomiting


  • Primary dysmenorrhea caused by uterine muscle contractions
  • Secondary dysmenorrhea from underlying medical conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease.




Characterised by heavy menstrual bleeding lasting longer than seven days or requiring frequent sanitary changes.


  • Excessive menstrual flow
  • The need to frequently change pads or tampons
  •  Fatigue.


  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Adenomyosis
  • Blood disorders like von Willebrand disease
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease


Irregular Cycles


This involves variations in cycle length, making it challenging to predict the timing of a period.


  • Inconsistent cycle lengths
  • Unpredictable periods
  • Potential underlying causes.


  • High levels of stress or emotional turmoil
  • Conditions such as PCOS or thyroid disorders
  • Significant changes in weight
  • Certain medications, like those used for epilepsy or chemotherapy
  • Perimenopause

When to Seek Help from a Healthcare Professional

If you experience any of the cycle signs or irregularities mentioned above or other concerning signs or symptoms related to your menstrual cycle, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional proficient in the menstrual cycle.

While some irregularities are common and may resolve independently, others may indicate underlying medical conditions that require treatment.

Here are some indicators of when to seek help:

  • Persistent Amenorrhea: If you have not yet experienced menarche, first menstruation  by age 16 (primary amenorrhea), or if your periods stop for several consecutive cycles (secondary amenorrhea), consult a healthcare provider.

  • Severe Dysmenorrhea: If you experience debilitating menstrual cramps and pain that interfere with your daily life, speak to a healthcare professional.

  • Excessive Menstrual Bleeding: If you consistently have heavy menstrual bleeding, leading to discomfort and potential anaemia, seek medical advice.

  • Irregular Cycles: If your menstrual cycles are consistently irregular, unpredictable, or accompanied by other symptoms, consult a healthcare provider to rule out underlying health issues.

Remember that seeking medical advice is essential for diagnosing and managing menstrual irregularities. Early investigation and intervention can prevent potential complications and help you achieve optimal menstrual health.

Sanitary Products for Menstruation Management

Sanitary products are designed to absorb menstrual blood. A wide array of these products are available, giving those who menstruate several choices to match their individual needs.

Some of the most common options are:

  • Sanitary pads/napkins. These are made from absorbent materials and attached to the inside of an underwear. Some pads have “wings,” which are additional sticky materials that hold the pads in place. These are also now available as reusable options, making them a great choice for the planet, too.

  • Tampons. These are cylinder-shaped menstrual products inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual blood.

  • Menstrual cups. Similar to tampons, these products work within the vagina but collect blood instead of absorbing it.
  • Period underwear, also known as menstrual underwear. These products are designed to be worn like regular underwear but with an extra layer that absorbs menstrual blood.

According to the 2023 research from the Apple Women’s Health Study (AWHS), in which 7,394 menstruating individuals participated, menstruators use different sanitary products during their periods.

Almost half of the participants (47%) preferred standard tampons, while 46% reported using sanitary napkins or pads. Panty liners, worn by 43% of the participants, and super-absorbent tampons, purportedly used by the remaining 33%, were the third and fourth most used menstrual products.

Ultimately, your choice of menstrual products depends on your preferences, comfort, amount of menstrual flow, and lifestyle. Experimenting with different options is essential to find what works best for you. Some individuals even use a combination of products to meet their needs at different times during their menstrual cycle.

Promoting Proper Menstrual Health and Hygiene

As we continue our exploration of the menstrual cycle, we must emphasise the significance of proper menstrual health and hygiene practices.

Maintaining good hygiene during your period is about feeling fresh and comfortable, preventing infections, and ensuring overall well-being.

Let’s explore some essential tips for promoting proper menstrual health and hygiene.

  • Change Menstrual Products Regularly. Regardless of the type of menstrual product you use, it’s crucial to change it regularly to prevent the growth of bacteria and the risk of infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), sanitary pads and tampons should be changed every 4 to 6 hours or as needed. Menstrual cups can be worn for up to 12 hours, but it’s essential to empty and clean them according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

  • Maintain Good Hand Hygiene. Always wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before and after handling menstrual products or cleaning yourself. Proper hand hygiene reduces the risk of transferring harmful bacteria to your genital area.

  • Choose Breathable Fabrics. Wearing breathable underwear can help minimise moisture and reduce the risk of skin irritation and fungal infections. Avoid tight-fitting clothing, as it can trap heat and moisture, potentially leading to discomfort.

  • Practise Proper Cleaning. During your period, it’s essential to clean your genital area gently. Use a mild, fragrance-free soap and warm water to wash the area. Avoid harsh soaps or douches, as they can disrupt the natural pH balance of your vagina.

  • Be Mindful of Disposal. When disposing of used menstrual products, wrap them in toilet paper or throw them in a designated bin. Do not flush sanitary pads or tampons down the toilet; they can cause blockages.

  • Maintain a Healthy Diet. Eating a balanced diet rich in nutrients can help regulate your menstrual cycle and reduce the severity of menstrual symptoms. Staying hydrated is also essential during your period.

  • Manage Menstrual Pain. If you experience menstrual cramps or pain, consider over-the-counter pain relievers or other remedies recommended by your healthcare provider. Heat pads or hot water bottles can also provide relief.

  • Track Your Cycle. Keeping a menstrual diary or using a period tracking app can help you predict the timing of your period and identify any irregularities. This information can be valuable when discussing your menstrual health with a healthcare professional.

  • Educate Yourself. Understanding your menstrual cycle, including the phases and potential irregularities, empowers you to make informed decisions about your reproductive health. Stay informed about menstrual health by reading reliable sources and seeking guidance from healthcare professionals.

  • Seek Help from a Healthcare Professional for Concerns. If you experience severe menstrual pain, persistent irregularities, heavy bleeding, or any unusual symptoms during your period, don’t hesitate to consult a healthcare provider. They can assess your condition, provide a diagnosis, and recommend appropriate treatments or interventions.

  • Work with a Menstrual Coach. A menstrual cycle coach has specialised knowledge about the menstrual cycle. They can help you explore everything from cycle tracking and managing symptoms to nutritional advice and emotional support. Their expertise can help you align your lifestyle with your cycle for improved well-being and potentially optimise your daily activities according to the different phases of your cycle.

Promoting proper menstrual health and hygiene is essential for comfort, well-being, and overall quality of life during your period. By following these tips and staying informed about your menstrual health, you can confidently navigate your monthly cycle and ensure a positive and hygienic experience.


Decoding the menstrual cycle empowers menstruators to understand their bodies’ rhythms and signals better. 

By becoming familiar with the phases, hormonal dynamics, and potential cycle signs or challenges, you can confidently navigate your menstrual health journey and advocate for your own well-being.

Remember, attentive self-care and proactive communication with healthcare providers are integral to maintaining optimal menstrual health.

Looking to unlock the secrets of your monthly rhythm, embrace your body’s natural changes, and embark on a journey of self-discovery during your period? Join our community and learn about the menstrual cycle, fertility, and natural conception. You may also guide and advocate for other menstruators by becoming a certified Menstrual Cycle Coach.

Frequently Asked Questions

A healthy menstrual cycle ranges from 25-35 days in length, it’s the consistency of the cycle length that is important.

Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle can lead to various cycle signs and symptoms, including mood swings, breast tenderness, and menstrual cramps. Understanding these symptoms can help menstruators manage their menstrual health effectively.

Typical menstruation irregularities include amenorrhea (absence of periods), dysmenorrhea (severe menstrual cramps), menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), and irregular cycles. If you experience persistent irregularities, severe pain, heavy bleeding, or unusual symptoms during your period, it's essential to seek medical advice, as these could be indicators of underlying health issues.

Promoting proper menstrual health and hygiene involves changing menstrual products regularly, maintaining good hand hygiene, choosing breathable fabrics, practising proper cleaning, being mindful of disposal, maintaining a healthy diet, managing menstrual pain, tracking your cycle, staying informed, and seeking medical attention for concerns.

Yes, stress can indeed affect the menstrual cycle. High levels of stress can disrupt hormonal balance and lead to irregular cycles. Learning stress management techniques can help maintain a healthier menstrual cycle.

Yes, changes in one's mood are expected throughout the menstrual cycle. These can be due to hormonal fluctuations, particularly changes in oestrogen and progesterone levels. However, they are not supposed to be life altering or debilitating.

While some mood changes are expected, if you experience severe mood swings that interfere with daily life, it's advisable to seek advice from a healthcare professional.

Selecting the right menstrual products depends on personal preferences and comfort. Factors to consider include absorbency, ease of use, environmental impact, and lifestyle. Experimenting with different options can support you finding the best fit for your needs.

Yes, irregular periods are standard during perimenopause, the transitional phase leading to menopause. Hormonal fluctuations become more pronounced during this time, leading to variations in menstrual cycles. However, consult a healthcare professional for guidance if you have concerns about your symptoms.

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