Understanding Your Menstrual Cycle for Natural Contraception

Your menstrual cycle isn’t something to be ashamed of; quite the opposite — it’s a part of you that we believe to be cherished and properly acknowledged.

Similar to how understanding other aspects of your life can lead to personal growth, learning more about the menstrual cycle can help you get to know yourself better and lead a healthy life.

When used correctly, it can even be a powerful tool for natural contraception.

Tracking the phases of your cycle is a commonly used method to gain insight into your fertile window and make informed decisions about pregnancy prevention.

Have you ever noticed changes in your cervical mucus or basal body temperature (BBT)? These signs can be indicators of ovulation.

Join us as we discuss how to track these signs effectively and why understanding your menstrual cycle can be beneficial.

Key Takeaways

  • You can track the menstrual cycle to predict fertile windows and improve the effectiveness of natural contraception.

  • Recognising ovulation signs like mittelschmerz, breast tenderness, and changes in cervical mucus allows for better fertility awareness.

  • Employ ovulation predictor kits for more precise determination of fertile days.

The Menstrual Cycle Phases

The menstrual cycle comprises four distinct phases: the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase.

Let’s examine those in greater detail below.

The Menstrual Phase

The cycle starts with the menstrual phase. During this time, the uterine lining sheds, leading to menstrual bleeding.

This phase typically lasts 3-5 days, but the exact time frame varies between individuals.

Many menstruators use various products to support menstrual flow and maintain personal hygiene.

  • Pads are a popular choice, providing a convenient option for many. They come in different sizes and absorbencies.

  • Others may prefer tampons, which offer discreet protection and are easy to carry around.

  • Menstrual cups are another alternative. Made of medical-grade silicone or rubber, they can be reused, making them an eco-friendly option.

  • There are also other innovative products like menstrual discs and period underwear. The former can be worn for up to 12 hours, providing extended protection, while the latter combines comfort with functionality.

The Follicular Phase

The follicular phase begins at the tail end of menstruation, usually lasting from around 7 to 10 days in length.

During this phase, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes the growth of ovarian follicles. Oestrogen levels increase, thickening the uterine lining in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

The Ovulation Phase

Ovulation is the peak of the menstrual cycle. It’s the most critical phase for those monitoring their fertile days.

Triggered by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH), ovulation releases an egg from the dominant follicle.

This phase usually occurs around the middle of the cycle but can vary from person to person.

The Luteal Phase

The luteal phase follows ovulation, lasting about 11-14 days in length.

During this phase, the ruptured follicle forms the corpus luteum, secreting progesterone to maintain the uterine lining.

If fertilisation doesn’t occur, hormone levels drop, leading to the next menstrual phase.

Identifying Fertile Windows

Accurately identifying your fertile windows can be tricky, especially if you have irregular menstrual cycles.

However, there’s no other way around it if you want to use natural forms of birth control (i.e. not be on the pill).

Typically, the fertile window lasts anywhere between six to ten days in length for most. With days leading up to ovulation, ovulation itself, and the early post ovulation being potentially fertile days. These days account for the lifespan of both sperm (about five days) and the egg (about 24 hours).

If the egg doesn’t meet sperm within this time frame, fertilisation cannot happen. Thus, these fertile days are essential for anyone trying to conceive or avoid pregnancy.

Using traditional natural fertility tracking methods can help you keep track of your menstrual cycle and get the timing right.

Here’s how to track your menstrual cycle consistently.

  1. Start by recording the first day of your period to establish a baseline. Most menstruators  ovulate approximately 11-14 days before their next period. However, as cycle lengths can vary, it’s important to monitor several cycles to identify individuals cycle patterns and length.

  2. Use reliable methods for predicting ovulation, like basal body temperature tracking and ovulation predictor kits. These tools can help pinpoint your fertile days.

Tracking Ovulation Signs

As mentioned above, you can use ovulation signs to predict when you’re most likely to get pregnant.

While there are many ways to track your fertility, we’ll focus on two — observing changes in your cervical mucus and taking your basal body temperature (BBT).

It doesn’t mean that you should ignore other symptoms.

For instance, you may also experience mild abdominal pain known as mittelschmerz, breast tenderness, or a heightened sense of smell. All these additional signs can help corroborate your observations and further predict ovulation.

Still, monitoring basal body temperature and cervical mucus should form the backbone of your tracking method.

Using Basal Body Temperature

Tracking basal body temperature is an excellent method to determine when you ovulate, which is essential for natural family planning.

BBT is your body’s lowest resting temperature, typically measured first thing in the morning before any activity.

To use this method effectively, you need a basal thermometer that measures temperature to a tenth of a degree.

Throughout your menstrual cycle, you’ll notice that your BBT remains relatively stable, then drops slightly just before ovulation and rises sharply afterwards.

This rise in temperature, usually around 0.5 to 1.0 degrees Fahrenheit, indicates that ovulation has occurred. This temperature shift occurs due to increased progesterone levels following ovulation.

It’s important to record your BBT at the same time each morning and note any factors that might affect accuracy, such as illness or disrupted sleep.

Monitoring Cervical Mucus

Observing changes in your cervical mucus is an effective way to predict ovulation. In fact, it can provide crucial information about your fertility status throughout your menstrual cycle.

Cervical mucus undergoes distinct transformations in response to hormonal fluctuations, particularly oestrogen and progesterone.

  • During the follicular phase, mucus tends to be sparse, thick, and sticky, indicating lower fertility.

  • As you approach ovulation, oestrogen levels rise, causing the mucus to become clearer, stretchier, and more abundant. This fertile-quality mucus facilitates sperm mobility and survival, increasing the chances of conception.

  • Post-ovulation, the mucus changes again due to increased progesterone. It becomes thicker and less permeable, serving as a natural barrier to sperm.

To monitor cervical mucus effectively, check daily and record its consistency, colour, and stretchiness.

Consistent observation and proper documentation can make natural contraception a reliable option when used correctly.

The Bottom Line

Understanding your menstrual cycle can truly change your life. Once you get to know your body, you’ll gain control over your fertility without relying on artificial methods, leading to a more empowered and informed approach to contraception.

By consistently tracking signs like basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and ovulation symptoms, you can identify your fertile window with precision.

This knowledge allows you to make informed decisions about natural contraception, enhancing your reproductive health.


The fertility awareness method involves tracking your menstrual cycle to determine when you are most fertile and least likely to get pregnant.

By tracking your menstrual cycle, you can identify the days when you are fertile and should avoid unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy.

The rhythm method is a form of natural family planning where you track your menstrual cycle to predict your fertile days and avoid unprotected sex during that time to prevent pregnancy.

Yes, if you have unprotected sex during your fertile days, there is a higher chance that you could become pregnant, as sperm can fertilise an egg released from your ovaries.

The fertility awareness method involves tracking your cycle and fertility signs to prevent pregnancy, while hormonal birth control uses artificial hormones to prevent ovulation and fertilisation.

A typical menstrual cycle can vary between 25-35 days in length. It is recommended to abstain from sex or use protection from about 5 days before you ovulate until at least 3 days after ovulation to prevent pregnancy. Being able to identify ovulation is key to knowing when to abstain from sex if you are choosing to do so.

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